Duke Chapel standing over campus building

Category: Getting Started Page 1 of 2

The Duke Brand

To maintain and strengthen its brand, which is among its most valuable assets, Duke has developed a set of identity graphics and standards for its print and online communications. It promotes the clear and consistent use of these standards across the university, thereby reinforcing Duke’s identity as a global, interdisciplinary university whose schools and units work together on behalf of a common mission. The standards extend to the use of wordmarks, logos, signature colors, type fonts and other matters that affect Duke’s visual identity.

Please visit the university brand site for more detail.

Media Training

Duke encourages its faculty members and others to reach out beyond the campus and share their expertise with a broader audience. An effective appearance in a newspaper or on the air reflects well not only on you, but on your department and the university as well. Each winter, University Communications holds a two-and-a-half-hour media training seminar to help people learn about how to become more effective in this process.

The seminar includes discussions and handouts on how to handle an interview and become a source for reporters; how to write an op-ed article; and how to balance media outreach with other academic priorities. There are also opportunities for several attendees to sit in the TV “hot seat” for a mock interview.

For more information, contact Keith Lawrence, director of media relations, at keith.lawrence@duke.edu.

If a Reporter Calls

Duke’s University Communications team offers the following tips for print and broadcast interviews:

  • If you need help – ask. If you’ve received a call from a reporter and have any questions or concerns about how to respond, contact us at University Communications, 684-2823.
  • Don’t feel rushed. If a reporter calls and you are caught off-guard or are preoccupied with another task, ask to call back so you can gather your thoughts. Remember, though, that reporters’ deadlines are often measured in minutes; if you agree to be interviewed, you must respond quickly.
  • Identify the reporter. If you agree to an interview, write down the reporter’s name, media outlet and contact information. If you have any doubts about the reporter’s identity, contact the Office of News and Communications.
  • Decide What You Want to Say. Many academics view their objective in an interview as avoiding saying anything foolish. That’s important, certainly, but you may not accomplish much with such a defensive approach. You should also view the interview as an opportunity to communicate what you want to say. Before you begin, decide what two or three key points you want to get across, and have both data and human examples ready to highlight each one. Be sure to make these points during the interview, even if the reporter doesn’t ask about them.
  • Provide background information. You can help the reporter – and minimize errors – by offering to provide background information on complex topics. This can include material from other sources.
  • Prepare for difficult questions. Anticipate difficult questions and prepare responses to them. Never say, “No comment.” Instead, explain why you can’t or won’t answer the question.
  • Give simple, direct answers. Be brief. Reporters likely will use short quotes, clips or sound bites. Avoid jargon and explain the topic as simply as possible. It’s best to avoid flippant or joking comments that sound acceptable in conversation but might be taken out of context.
  • Nothing is “off the record.” Don’t say anything you don’t want to read in the newspaper or see on the evening news, even when the formal interview seems to have ended and you are just chatting with the reporter.
  • Ask questions. Although reporters are unlikely to let you review a story before it’s published or aired, they may let you verify specific information or quotes. It doesn’t hurt to ask.
  • Give feedback. If a reporter makes a major mistake, call the publication and ask for a correction. If the mistake is minor, it may be better to let it go. If you have any questions about whether the issue should be pursued, contact the Office of News and Communications. If you feel the story is well done, let the reporter know that, too.

Duke Language Usage Guide

Introduction

Duke University follows The Associated Press Stylebook for stylistic issues pertaining to news releases and other information generated for news media and for news material distributed on the Web. When an issue is not covered in the stylebook, we rely on Webster’s New World Dictionary.

The discussion of grammar and usage is far from comprehensive, but some common errors have been highlighted. When in doubt, or when the example you’re seeking isn’t covered, we strongly recommend that you consult the guides mentioned above, as well as others, such as Strunk & White’s “The Elements of Style.”

There are also a number of helpful online dictionaries and usage guides, among them:


A

Abbreviations
Academic degrees
Academic departments
Academic titles
Affect, effect
Alumnus, etc.
American Indians
Among, between

C

Capitalization
Carat, caret, karat
Collective nouns
Commas in a series
Compose, comprise
Compound nouns

D

Dean’s list
Disc, disk
Disinterested, uninterested
Due to
Duke’s units, official names

F

Foreign words and phrases
Full time, part time
Fundraising, fundraiser

H

Handicap, disability
He or she, his or her
Historic, history
Hopefully
Hurricanes
Hyphenation

I

Impact
Imply, infer
Institutes
Internet, Web, Technology
Iran, Iraq
Italics, quotation marks

K

Kmart, Wal-Mart, etc.

L

Lay, lie
Less, fewer
Like, as
Local places

M

Months, seasons
Mohammed
Mount, mountains
mm, mph

N

Numbers

O

Only

P

Possessives
Prefixes

R

Ranges
Religions
Religious holidays

S

Saint
Schools and years
Scot, Scots, Scottish, Scotch
States, names of

T

That, which
Time element
Titles of books, movies, plays, etc.
Trademarks

W

Who, whom

Please note: Through the following examples, italics are used to highlight the word or phrase in question, and not to indicate that the word or phrase should be italicized.

abbreviations These titles are capitalized and abbreviated before a name:

Dr.
Gov.
Lt. Gov.
Rep.
Sen. (Sens.)
and all military titles (Gen., Adm., Col., Maj., Capt., Pvt., Pfc, etc.)

Professor is never abbreviated and only capitalized if part of a title, e.g. Joe Smith, the Eugene Jones Professor of Chemistry, …

United States and United Nations — spell out on first reference, then abbreviate U.S. and U.N. as nouns on second and subsequent references. Abbreviate always when used as adjectives.

The United States contribution to the U.N Climate Fund is larger than that of any other nation.

The U.S. ambassador said she will not protest the meeting at the United Nations. But a U.N. spokeswoman said …

academic degrees bachelor of arts (B.A.)(a bachelor’s)

bachelor of divinity (B.D.)

bachelor of laws (LL.B)

bachelor of science (B.S.)

doctor of law (J.D.) (a doctorate)

doctor of laws (L.L.D.)

doctor of medicine (M.D.)

doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.)

master of arts (M.A.) (a master’s)

master of public policy (M.P.P.)

master of science (M.S.)

academic departments Academic departments are in lowercase (the music department, the physics department) except when the subject in question is a proper noun (the English department, the German department).

Department names used in an official sense are uppercase (e.g., Duke’s Department of Chemistry, the Department of Music). The same is true for institutes, centers, schools, etc.

academic titles Capitalize titles before a name.

Duke University President Vincent E. Price

Trinity College Dean Valerie Ashby

Lowercase after a name or when used alone.

Vincent E. Price, the president of Duke University

Valerie Ashby, dean of Trinity College

Exceptions are names of chaired professorships.

Alice Mary Baldwin Professor of History William H. Chafe and

William H. Chafe, Alice Mary Baldwin Professor of History

Doctor, M.D., Ph.D. — See entry here.

affect, effect Affect, the noun, describes an emotion, and is used mainly in psychology. AP style says to avoid using “affect” as a noun.

The patient showed little affect.

Affect, the verb, means to influence.

His illness affected his grades.

Effect, the noun, means result or outcome.

His illness had an effect on his grades.

Effect, the verb, means to bring about, to create.

The department chair effected big changes.

alumnus, etc. An alumnus is a male graduate, an alumna a female graduate. Alumni are both male graduates and male and female graduates combined. Alumnae are female graduates.

The same endings apply for emeritus, meaning a retired faculty member.

American Indians The AP Stylebook suggests that this usage is preferable to Native Americans, since the ancestors of American Indians migrated to North America from Asia.
among, between Between introduces two items, among more than two.

The applicant had to decide among Duke, Harvard and Princeton.

The applicant had to choose between Duke and Princeton.

Pronouns following these prepositions are in the objective case.

The choice was between us and them.

capitalization Avoid unnecessary capitals.

Capitalize:

proper nouns: James B. Duke

proper names: Duke University, the Eno River

popular names: the Bull City, the Triangle

titles (see Academic Titles, above, and Titles, below): “Dear Old Duke”

University, by itself, meaning Duke, is never capitalized.

President Price described the university’s master plan.

faculty is not capitalized unless it’s part of a proper name: Duke Faculty Commons; The faculty agenda includes ….

carat, caret, karat A carat is a measure of weight of precious stones. A caret is a proofreader’s symbol, indicating where words or letters are to be inserted. A karat is a measure of the portion of pure gold in an alloy.
collective nouns Nouns and proper nouns denoting units (class, choir, committee, fraternity, orchestra, team, Duke, Microsoft) are singular and take singular verbs and pronouns.

The Arts & Sciences Council adjourned for the summer. It meets again in September.

The team is on a road trip. It plays tonight in Atlanta.

However, team names and band names take plural verbs and pronouns.

The Beatles remain the world’s most influential band.

The Blue Devils won last night. They dominated on defense.

commas in a series Use a comma after each item in a series except before the conjunction (unless the last item includes a conjunction.)

Example:
Students eat lunch at the Cambridge Inn, the Alpine Atrium and the Perk.

compose, comprise Compose, in the passive voice, means to be made up of.

Duke University is composed of nine schools.

Comprise, best used only in the active voice, means to contain or include.

Duke University comprises nine schools.

compound nouns When in doubt whether a noun is open (half note, half brother), closed (halfback, halftone), or hyphenated (half-moon, half-life), consult a dictionary. (Also see Prefixes, below.) Some examples:
African-American

Afro-American

attorney general

blue green

bookkeeping

coal mining

crosswalk

decision maker

decision making

ex-president

first-grader

French Canadian

full moon

half-century

half-dollar

headache, toothache

Italian-American

key of B minor

key of B-flat

key of F-sharp

key of G major

Latin American

mid-Atlantic

midsummer

near miss

northeast

notebook, textbook

one-half, one-eighth

oversight

policymaker

president-elect

quasi corporation

self-knowledge

vice chairman

vice president

vice provost

dean’s list Always lowercase;

Example:
He made the dean’s list three straight semesters.

disc, disk computer disk or diskette

floppy disk

disc jockey

laserdisc

videodisc

disinterested, uninterested Disinterested means impartial, uninterested means lacking in interest.
due to Due is an adjective that follows the verb to be or modifies a particular noun.

The cancellation was due to snow.

Cancellations due to snow disrupted the semester.

It should not be used in adverbial phrases to mean because of.

Instead of: Due to snow, classes were canceled.

Use: Because of snow, classes were canceled.

Duke’s units, official names Arts & Sciences and Trinity College

Divinity School

Duke University Health System (lowercase “health system” if on its own)
*(Duke Medicine is an umbrella term that refers to all of the component entities — Duke University Health System, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University School of Nursing, etc. Duke University Health System refers ONLY to the clinical entities — Duke University Hospital, Duke Raleigh Hospital, outpatient clinics and facilities, etc.)

The Fuqua School of Business

Graduate School

Nicholas School of the Environment

Pratt School of Engineering

Sanford School of Public Policy

School of Law

School of Medicine

School of Nursing

Undergraduate women who attended Duke between 1930 and 1972 were students in the Woman’s College, not the Women’s College.

See also: Schools and class years, below.

foreign words
and phrases
Foreign words and phrases found in a standard English dictionary are not italicized:
al-Qaida

dolce vita

fait accompli

hacienda

jihad

kibitz

mah-jongg

mea culpa

troika

tsunami

Nouns that in German would be capitalized are in English lowercase: doppelgänger or doppelganger, schadenfreude, weltschmerz.

full time, part time Hyphenate the adjective, not the noun.

Full-time employees work full time. Part-time employees work part time.

fundraising, fundraiser One word in all cases.

The Campaign for Duke was a fundraising effort. Fundraising is important to the university’s future.

handicap, disability Please refer to people with disabilities or disabled rather than to the handicapped.
he or she, his or her Using he or she and his or her to be fair to both genders can be awkward. It is often simpler to make the noun plural.

Instead of:
A student gets good grades when he or she studies hard.

Use:
Students get good grades when they study hard.

historic, history When the h in these words is pronounced, the indefinite article should be a:

a historic moment
a history professor

hopefully This adverb means in a hopeful manner.

The students waited hopefully for tickets.

It should not be used to mean it is hoped.

Instead of:
Hopefully, tickets would be available.

Use:
They hoped tickets would be available.

hurricanes All hurricanes take an indefinite pronoun.

Hurricane Fran hit Durham in 1996. It (not she) caused extensive flooding.

hyphenation Compound modifiers before nouns are hyphenated.

The trustees approved a long-term strategic plan.

Exceptions: Compounds with very and with adverbs ending in –ly.

A D is a very low grade.

A D is not an easily forgotten grade.

Compound modifiers after the verb to be are hyphenated.

The strategic plan is to be a long-term document.

impact Impact is a noun.

The team’s losing record had an impact on attendance.

Its use as a verb meaning affect or influence is common, but should be avoided.

Instead of:
The team’s losing record impacted attendance.

Use:
The team’s losing record affected attendance.

imply, infer Speakers and writers imply, listeners and readers infer.
institutes Duke’s six university-wide institutes serve as crucial incubators of innovations in research, pedagogy and civic engagement. More information is at https://sites.duke.edu/interdisciplinary

Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, John Hope Franklin Humanities Institute, Duke Global Health Institute, Kenan Institute for Ethics, Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Social Science Research Institute

Internet, Web, etc. The following capitalizations, spellings and hyphenations are recommended:

app
avatar
blog
cellphone
click-throughs
crowdsourcing
Duke on Demand
Duke Today
e-commerce
eBay
email
e-reader (Kindle, Nook)
GIF
geotagging, geolocation
Google, Googling, Googled
hashtag
Internet (The Net is acceptable)
iPad, iPhone, iPod (iPod Nano, iPod Touch, etc.)
iTunes U
JPG
mashup
microblogging
“Office Hours”
online
PDF
smartphone
to text, text message, texted, texting
Tumblr
Twitter (n.), tweet (n., v.)
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP on second reference)
Web, website (or World Wide Web)
wiki, Wikipedia
Working@Duke
YouTube (also, Duke’s channel on YouTube)

Iran, Iraq Iran is not an Arab nation. Its people are Persian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish and other ethnic groups. The principal language is Farsi, an Indo-European language, also known as Persian, that is written with Arabic characters. Ninety percent of Iranians are Shiite Muslims, 10 percent Sunni Muslims.

Iraq is an Arab nation. The principal language is Iraqi, a dialect of Arabic. Sixty-five percent of Iraqis are Shiite Muslims, 30 percent Sunni Muslims.

The Kurds, Sunni Muslims who speak a dialect of Farsi, are a large minority in both countries.

italics, quotation marks In general, do not use italics or quotation marks for emphasis or to suggest irony or special usage:

Some students questioned whether the painting should be considered “art.”

In particular, do not use italics or quotation marks around clichés or figures of speech:

The tuition increase will have an impact on the university’s “bottom line.”

Nicknames are enclosed in quotation marks.

Harold “Spike” Yoh, former chairman of Duke’s Board of Trustees.

Kmart, Wal-Mart, Hewlett-Packard, Packard Bell, etc. When in doubt about the spelling and punctuation of company names, check with the press relations department at corporate headquarters. Even official websites may contain errors.
lay, lie Lay (past tense: laid; past participle: laid; present participle: laying) is an action verb meaning to put or place; it takes a direct object.

The student lays down his pencil.

The student laid down his pencil.

He has laid down his pencil.

He is laying down his pencil.

Lie (past tense: lay; past participle: lain; present participle: lying) means to be or stay at rest horizontally. It cannot take an object.

The pencil lies on the desk.

The pencil lay on the desk.

The pencil has lain on the desk.

The pencil is lying on the desk.

less, fewer In general, less refers to things that can be measured, fewer to things that can be counted.

The student had less free time, even though he took fewer classes.

like, as Like is a preposition that requires an object.

She plays defense like a pro.

As is a conjunction that introduces a clause.

She plays defense as the coach taught her.

local places Research Triangle Park, then RTP in subsequent references.

the Triangle, and eight-county region in the Piedmont of North Carolina consisting of  Chatham, Durham, Franklin, Harnett, Johnston, Orange, Person, Wake.

months, seasons Months are uppercase, seasons are lowercase. Abbreviate all months with a date except March, April, May, June, July.

May 15. July 4. Feb. 13. Dec. 25.

It was the summer of 1975. We worked hard all winter.

Mohammed Preferred over Muhammad, Mahomet or other spellings for the founder of Islam.
mount, mountains Mount is spelled out, mountain is capitalized as part of a proper name.

Mount Mitchell is in the Black Mountains.

mm, mph Do not use periods; abbreviate in all uses.

The White Lecture Hall has 16mm and 35mm film projectors. (Note: No space is used.)

The campus speed limit is 25 mph.

numbers Spell out whole numbers below 10, use figures for 10 and above.

The department has 15 faculty and two administrative assistants.

Exceptions:

Ages:
She has a son, John, 7.
She has a 7-year-old son, John.

Dimensions:
The photograph is 6 inches by 9 inches.
The sophomore is 6 feet 5. He is a 6-foot-5 sophomore.

Percentages:
Only 4 percent of undergraduates do not return for their sophomore year.

Time:
The class starts at 9 a.m. (Not: 9:00 a.m. or 9 A.M.)
Try to avoid starting a sentence with a figure.
Seventy students enrolled in the class.

Rewrite: There are 70 students enrolled in the class.

only Make sure that only modifies what you want it to modify.

He only studies on weekends means that on Saturday and Sunday he does nothing but study.

He studies only on weekends means that he doesn’t study Monday through Friday.

possessives Singular nouns add an apostrophe and an s.

Example:

the team’s record.

Exceptions:
appearance’ sake, conscience’ sake, goodness’ sake

The AP Stylebook lists as exceptions singular nouns ending in s and followed by words beginning with s:

the witness’ story, but the witness’s recollection
the hostess’ soirée. but the hostess’s party

Plural nouns add an apostrophe:

the students’ grades

Exceptions:

Plural words used descriptively.
The Blue Devils coach

a writers guide

Names ending in s, add an apostrophe:

Charles’ dog

Chameides’ staff

Jesus’ mother

Moses’ law

Achilles’ heel

Euripedes’ plays

For names ending in z and x, add an apostrophe and an s:

Berlioz’s opera

Marx’s writings

Xerox’s profits

prefixes most nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs formed with the following prefixes are closed (e.g., anteroom, neoclassical):
ante (antediluvian)
anti (antihero)
bi (bisexual)
bio (biodiversity)
co (coauthor, cooperate)
counter (counteroffensive)
extra (extracurricular)
infra (infrastructure)
inter (intercollegiate)
intra (intrasquad)
macro (macroeconomics)
meta (metadata)
micro (micromanage)
mid (midcentury)(but: mid-Atlantic)
mini (minibus)
multi (multistory)
neo (neoclassical)
non (nonviolent, nonprofit)
over (overvalued)
post (postdoctoral)
pre (prearranged)
pro (proconsul) (but: pro-choice,
pro-life, pro-American)
proto (prototype)
pseudo (pseudoscience)
re (reunite, reexamine)
semi (semiannual, semiconductor)
socio (socioeconomic)
sub (substandard)
super (superego, superimpose)
supra (supraorbital)
trans (transoceanic)
ultra (ultraconservative)
un (unenthusiastic)
under (underfunded)
ranges Use this form:

$5 million to $10 million, not $5-10 million

5,000 to 10,000, not 5-10,000

religions Anglicanism (Anglican)
Baptist Church (Baptist)
Buddhism (Buddhist)
Catholicism (Catholic)
Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Scientist)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-
day Saints (Mormon)
Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)
Hinduism (Hindu)
Islam (Muslim)
Judaism (Jew)
Eastern Orthodox churches (Greek Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church)
Protestantism (Protestant)
Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)
Roman Catholicism (Roman Catholic)
Seventh-day Adventist Church
Shiism (Shiite)
Shintoism (Shintoist)
Sunnism (Sunni)
Taoism (Taoist)
United Methodist Church (Methodist)
religious holidays Please use the following spellings:
Ash Wednesday
Christmas (and Christmastime)
Easter
Good Friday
Hanukkah
Holy Week
Lent
Passover
Ramadan
Rosh Hashana
Yom Kippur
Saint Abbreviate in place names and the names of saints:

St. Paul, Minn.; St. John’s Newfoundland; St. Christopher

Exceptions:
Saint John, New Brunswick; Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

schools and years For external use, say, “Jones, a 1965 graduate of the Trinity College of Arts & Sciences at Duke, …

For internal use, our style for the school and class year of alumni is: School initial ’YY (use an apostrophe, not a single open quotation mark)

(In 2024 and thereafter, we will have to distinguish between, for example, T’2024 and T’1924.)

Trinity College T’YY
Divinity School D’YY
The Fuqua School of Business B’YY (Do not use F, which is reserved for graduates of the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, formerly the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies)
Graduate School G’YY
Nicholas School of the Environment F’YY
Pratt School of Engineering E’YY
Sanford School of Public Policy S’YY
School of Law L’YY
School of Medicine M’YY
School of Nursing N’YY
Woman’s College WC’YY

Also:
Engineering/Professional Programs X’YY
Graduate School of Nursing R’YY
House Staff (hospital interns treated as alumni by Medical Development) H’YY
Parents are designated P’YY, with an explanation of which school their child or children attended. Grandparents are GP’YY.

Scot, Scots, Scottish, Scotch A Scot is a native of Scotland.

Scots are the people of Scotland.

Scottish modifies someone or something from Scotland.

Scotch is a type of whiskey. When the two words are used together they are spelled Scotch whisky.

states, names of The following states are never abbreviated in conjunction with the name of a city, town, village or military base:

Alaska
Hawaii
Idaho
Iowa
Maine
Ohio
Texas
Utah

Put a comma between the city and state name, and another comma after the state name, unless it ends a sentence.

Reynolds Price was born in Macon, N.C., and graduated from Duke in 1955.

If the abbreviated state name ends the sentence, use only one period.

Sen. Richard Burr attended college in Winston-Salem, N.C.

The abbreviations of the remaining states are:

Ala.
Ariz.
Ark.
Calif.
Colo.
Conn.
Del.
Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
Miss.
Mo.
Mont.
N.D.
Okla.
Ore.
Pa.
R.I.
S.C.
S.D.
Fla.
Ga.
Ill.
Ind.
Kan.
Ky.
La.
Neb.
Nev.
N.H.
N.J.
N.M.
N.Y.
N.C.
Tenn.
Vt.
Va.
Wash.
W.Va.
Wis.
Wyo.
that, which That introduces clauses essential to the meaning of a sentence (and never set off by commas).

Duke is the university that James B. Duke founded.

Which introduces nonessential clauses (always set off by commas).

Duke, which was founded by James B. Duke, is located in Durham, N.C.

time element In external news releases, use the day of the week, not “today.”

President Vincent E. Price announced Wednesday …

titles of books, movies, plays, etc. Put quotation marks around the titles of books, movies, operas, plays, poems, songs, television programs and works of art. Capitalize the first and last words and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinating conjunctions (if, because, as, that, etc.). Lowercase definite and indefinite articles, coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, for, nor) and prepositions.

“Let Us Now Praise Famous Men”

“It Happened One Night”

“The Marriage of Figaro”

“Death of a Salesman”

“Ode on a Grecian Urn”

“Just One of Those Things”

“Who Wants to Be a Millionaire”

“Adoration of the Magi”

Exceptions:

The Bible, the Koran, the Torah,

Reference books, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.

Encyclopedia Britannica

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

Books In Print

Names of newspapers, journals or magazines do not take quotation marks and are not italicized. (Note:“the” may or may not be part of a paper’s name. Check each publication to be sure. Websites are a good source.)

The Herald-Sun

The News & Observer

The New York Times

New York Daily News

The New Yorker

Science

Nature

U.S. News (with a space) was formerly U.S.News & World Report (no space). Its website is www.usnews.com.

trademarks The following words are trademarks:

Ace Bandage

AstroTurf

Band-Aid

Scotch Tape

Seeing-Eye dog

Sheetrock

Spandex

Styrofoam

Velcro

Xerox (never used as a verb)

The following are generic:

aspirin

cellophane

escalator

nylon

pingpong (unless referring to the table tennis equipment made by Ping-Pong)

rayon

thermos (unless referring to the vacuum bottle made by Thermos)

yo-yo

(When in doubt, try typing the word into a search engine window. Trademarks often have websites, e.g., www.velcro.com.

who, whom Who refers to the subject of a sentence, clause or phrase.

The students who worked with tutors got high grades.

Whom refers to the object of a verb or preposition.

The students whom the tutors helped got high grades.

DSLR Camera

Video Production at Duke

Video is one of our most powerful tools for telling stories and reaching university audiences. Navigating the possibilities of video takes many kinds of skills and tools. We’ve outlined some best practices and solutions below.

Production

Process

Video production can be a long sequence with many phases. These guides can help you and your video subjects through the process.

  • Video Production Timeline
  • Filming Guidelines
  • Interview Guidelines
  • What to Wear on Camera
  • Release Form

Tools & Software

Discounted licenses of some video-editing programs may be purchased through Duke, and many tools are available from various offices and initiatives. Learn more about available video tools & software.

For ease-of-use, we’ve also produced Duke-branded video project templates for Adobe Premiere Pro CC, Final Cut X and iMovie, which are available in the Video Graphics Package.

Distribution

Online Hosting with YouTube

With 1 billion regular users and an estimated 1 trillion hours of uploaded footage, YouTube is our preferred hosting solution for online, public video content. By hosting your videos on YouTube, you will be tapping a source that’s highly preferred in Google’s search results. Using a Duke-affiliated channel allows institutional channels to share and amplify videos from your organization.

Sharing & Native Hosting on Social Media

Though videos hosted on sites like YouTube can often be shared on social media, some platforms boost the visibility of videos that are natively uploaded over posts that link externally-hosted videos. Other platforms, such as Instagram, only allow native video uploads. In cases where you would like to use native video, consult the target social media platform’s documentation for specific instructions and guidelines.

Graphics Package

The Duke Video Graphics Package is accessible to members of the Duke community through WebDAM. A pre-packaged, editable graphics kit is available for Premiere Pro users along with the individual assets for use with other video editing software. See the Video Graphics Instructions document in the folder for additional information and examples.

Download the Duke Video Graphics Package

Campus Footage

A B-roll library containing a variety of footage from across campus is available to the Duke community in via Duke’s WebDAM. A NETID is required for access.

Duke B-roll Library

Filming Locations

From meeting spaces to theaters to natural areas, a variety of venues are available for capturing video across campus. We’ve compiled a list of these locations along with notes about the area and contact details for reserving the space. A NETID is required for access.

Filming Locations at Duke

Print Media at Duke

Wordmark/Logo

Usage

The Duke University wordmark melds the words “Duke” and “University” with a specific font treatment, creating a recognizable wordmark. This wordmark or logo is used on stationery, business cards and letterhead. You may also use the wordmark in other print materials such as brochures, newsletters, bulletins and ads. Do not use the wordmark in conjunction with a graphic.

The University shield is not available for download, and its use is restricted to official Duke University business (such as diplomas) and the Office of the President. Please discontinue using the shield for anything but these purposes, as it is not sanctioned by the University. Other logos such as the large Duke D and the Blue Devil are used solely by Duke Athletics and are not available for download.

logos

  1.  Illustrator format for wordmarks
    1. horizontal wordmark
    2. vertical wordmark
  2. 300dpi jpg format of wordmark
  3. 72dpi jpg format of wordmark

Print Procurement

In similar fashion to digital communications projects, print procurement printing projects, such as brochures, posters, newsletter, magazines, direct mail packages, etc. costing more than $5,000 and all repeating publications costing more than $5,000 annually, should be specified, bid and coordinated by the Duke Print Management team. For projects with a cost under this threshold, departments may request the assistance of print consultants, at their discretion.

You must bid design and printed materials separately. To learn more about the print management process please visit the Print Procurement site.

Social Media Guidelines for Communicators

Understand your strategy.

Social media efforts should be part of a larger communications strategy. Know what you’re trying to accomplish, and why. Who is your audience? What do you want them to do? Is social media the best way to do this?

Follow all applicable Duke University policies.

For example, you must not share confidential or proprietary information about Duke University. Among the policies most pertinent to this discussion are those concerning government affairs (PDF), mutual respect, computer, e-mail & Internet use and student financial aid.

Everything is public.

There’s no such thing as a “private” social media site. Search engines can turn up your posts years later. Don’t post something today that may haunt you later.

Be respectful.

If readers see your affiliation with Duke, they may read your words as representing the university, even if you provide a disclaimer saying your views are your own. As a general rule, be respectful and don’t post anything you would be uncomfortable saying in a public setting. Follow the Duke Guiding Principles and the Duke Community Standard.

Be transparent about your role at Duke.

If you participate in or maintain a social media site on behalf of the university, clearly state your role and goals. Strive for accuracy, correcting errors quickly and visibly. If you have questions about whether it is appropriate to write about certain material, ask your supervisor first.

Maintain confidentiality.

Do not post confidential, proprietary or protected health information about students, employees, patients or other members of the Duke community. Use good ethical judgment. All federal guidelines such as FERPA, HIPAA and university policies such as the Duke Confidentiality Agreement must be observed on Duke-sponsored or Duke-maintained social media sites.

Protect your identity.

Don’t provide personal information about yourself or others that scam artists and identity thieves might steal.

Moderate comments and discussions.

By their nature, social networking sites are participatory and involve sharing among multiple users. However, it is important to monitor live discussions for off-topic or abusive comments. Whenever possible, moderate comments and be transparent about doing so by including language similar to the comments policy on Duke University’s Facebook Page.

Respect university time and property.

As stated in Duke’s “Computing and Networking: Acceptable Use” policy, university computers and work time are to be used for university-related business. It’s appropriate to post at work if your comments are directly related to accomplishing work goals, but maintain your personal site on your own time using non-Duke computers.


Branding and Graphics

Representing the Duke brand on Social Media

When you post to social networks from an official Duke University account, you are representing the Duke brand. Here are some simple guidelines to help put your best foot forward. If you have specific questions on branding, please contact the Office of Marketing and Strategic Communications.

  • Begin with “Duke” when creating a name for your Facebook Page, Twitter account or other social media presences
  • Use of the Duke logo is reserved for Duke’s institutional departments, centers and units
  • Where available, departments, schools and units should use their official logos and iconic images to build their profiles

Please follow Duke’s policies and procedures regarding copyright, privacy and sharing of information.

Downloadable Graphics and Profile Images

These downloadable graphics are available for use by official Duke social media accounts. They include cover image and background art for Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn, Twitter and YouTube.

The profile image is intended for use on social media channels only. The profile image .ai file can be customized with the name of your area in the lower portion. However, please do not alter the profile image graphic in any other way.

Images for Albums and Sharing

A collection of #PictureDuke images were captured by the Duke community during PhotoWalk events across campus. These photos are downloadable via Flickr and can be used by institutional departments for social media purposes. Please credit the photographer when using images from the #PictureDuke collection.

Best Practices

Quick Guide to Blogging, Tweeting and Facebook

Photography at Duke

When choosing photography for your project, a combination of thematic stock photos and custom photoshoots should be able to provide all necessary images. When choosing (and shooting) images, look for:

  • interesting, asymmetric compositions
  • “white” or negative space
  • utilize close crops
  • diversity of subjects both in race and gender
  • subject matter of off-campus images should be topical

Avoid excessive shots of campus architecture. Instead, choose classrooms, students, or natural elements (plants, sky, etc.). When applicable, incorporate current event images to convey a theme or topic. Look for editorial images instead of banal “stock” images. Lastly, use global images as much as possible. Try not to limit industry/initiative images to a U.S. focus.

Portraits

Portraits should be forward-facing with the following attributes:

  • quiet composition
  • personal
  • looking toward camera

Alumni portraits should be off-campus (to illustrate our impact in the real world) and, when at all possible, include props from their industry. When portraits occur on campus, choose interesting backgrounds such as artwork or the natural world.

Other Things to Consider

Focus

Create a point of focus such that the background blurs a bit, but avoid the image getting too “soft.”

Expression

Can be anything, really. Just try and capture your subject at ease, with their most natural expression.

Background

Be creative, look for backgrounds that are graphic, quiet, or artful.

Proximity

Try the extremes; either really close or really far can be unusual and wonderful.

Candids/In-context

Photographs that make the user feel as though they are a part of the action can be very impactful. It gives the viewer a sense of being a part of the setting rather than simply viewing.

Events: It may seem like photos of speakers, lectures or symposiums provide context but the goal is to differentiate it from all other photos of event speakers. Find the interaction opportunities, shoot from different angles.

Scenic

spring scenes on West Campus – Duke Chapel

Duke is an incredibly beautiful place and you’ll find no shortage of inspirational locations for breathtaking photography. When considering scenic imagery, consider the time of day for lighting, the traffic pattern of the area and if there may be any no-go zones as part of the photo (i.e. health system

Photography captured on campus is considered public space and therefore releases are not required. However, if you are taking personal/individual photos, please use the University Photo Release Form.

Photography Resources

Duke’s Asset Management System (NETID required) is a wonderful resource of over 7,000 images. It is refreshed regularly with community-sourced photos as well as new imagery captured by the University Communications team.

Duke University Archives Yearlook Flickr site is a great resource for archival photos of Duke through the years.

Refer to the compiled list of Photography Vendors to find resources to fill your photography needs. You can also review Duke Financial Services’ contractor guidelines and learn how to procure and pay for services.

Can I use that picture?

“It’s on Google. I can use it, right?”

It’s tricky. Use the infographic from The Visual Communication Guy to determine where content falls on the copyright spectrum.

Mobile Developer Resources & Guidelines

Mobile App Development Resources

Office of Information Technology

(contact Mobile Development Duke OIT mobiledev@oit.duke.edu for more details)

If you’re doing app development on behalf of the University with the goal to publish your app under the Duke University brand on Apple’s App Store, you can use University app development resources. OIT has built a team of mobile app development expertise to help develop, test and launch your apps.

What We Offer

  • Enterprise Distribution. If you have an iOS app that you would like to distribute internal to Duke University (i.e. to staff, faculty, students) then this is what you want. We can host a build of your application and make it available on dukeapps.duke.edu site, which will require a Duke NetID for authentication of users to download and install your app.
  • Beta Distribution. When you have tested your application and are ready to distribute it to external testers we can help with that too. We will work with your sign your application for distribution and set up Duke’s TestFlight platform for iOS.
  • Publishing on the App Store. If you are ready to release your application to the general public under Duke University brand on the App Store we will work with you to sign your application for distribution, navigate Apple’s review process, and finally, make your app available under Duke University’s account. For security reasons we maintain strict control over Duke University App Store account. When distributing an iOS apps on the Apple App Store or using our Enterprise Distribution services this security restriction means that we will need access to your source code base.

Colab

Student Resources for development projects.

If you’re a student or faculty doing app development inside the University for use by students or staff, you can use University Co-Lab development resources.

What We Offer

  • Co-Lab Tech Resources, including Office Hours and Slack: lab.duke.edu/resources
  • Co-Lab Developer Documentation: documentation.colab.duke.edu
  • Student App store: appstore.colab.duke.edu
  • Co-Lab APIs: apidocs.colab.duke.edu
  • Co-Lab App Manager: appmanager.colab.duke.edu
  • Streamer: https://streamer.oit.duke.edu
  • VM-Manage: vm-manage.oit.duke.edu
  • Gitlab: gitlab.oit.duke.edu

External App Development Vendors

We maintain a list of approved app development vendors who other members of staff/faculty have used to develop mobile apps.

List of approved mobile app development vendors – contact mobiledev@oit.duke.edu for details.

Mobile App Directory

Duke University Released Applications

Public iOS applications produced by Duke University are published on Apple’s App Store. Search your iPhone App Store for “Duke University” for the latest applications.

Duke App Icons

Duke University internal Applications

Other mobile applications, intended for Duke employees/student use are available on Duke’s internal App store: dukeapps.duke.edu for details (NetID/Shiboleth authentication required).

Duke Apps website

Duke University Student Applications

Student developed applications are made available on the Colab App Store (visit appstore.colab.duke.edu for latest releases.)

Duke University App Store

Web Resources at Duke

Alert Bar

Syndication technology allows for a web bar to appear automatically on websites across the university to highlight emergency news and other alerts. The alert bar accommodates two levels of information. Level 1 alerts, represented by a red bar, will be used for emergencies and will link to the DukeALERT website for additional information. Level 2 alerts, represented by an orange bar, will be used for important messages such as pending severe weather or a gas leak in a building. Download instructions for adding the DukeALERT bar to your website.

Web Fonts

Web fonts are a great way to enhance your site. They provide a more creative license in our communication materials and allow more flexibility and scalability across devices. Because they are vector based they render with crisp edges, clean lines and deep color.

Fonts affect load times as well as your sites’ aesthetic. Don’t use more than 2-3 fonts per site as this will negatively impact your sites’ performance. Since they play such a vital role in a consistent brand execution, refer to the university’s brand system for current font systems and use.

As always, our legacy fonts of Interstate and Garamond are available by request. See University Logos and Fonts in the Brand Guide.

SEO

A website has no value if no one can find it. Therefore, a critical component of any online strategy is search engine optimization (SEO). SEO is by no means an exact science. There is no single action or technique a website owner can employ to ensure his or her site will rank well. By following a basic set of principles for good web content design, the chances of achieving favorable rankings greatly increases.

Use this checklist.

Domain Names

Domain names require approval from the Office of Public Affairs. As a general rule, try to stay away from long, cumbersome spellings or ambiguous acronyms. Use fourth level domains if possible to show associations between units and schools.

Domains obtained by third party organization are the responsibility of the purchaser and should not utilize the duke brand without permission. Read the Duke Domain Request Policy and follow the link at the bottom of the page to complete the request form.

Analytics

Duke’s preferred platform for measuring web site traffic is Google Analytics. If you are unfamiliar with Google analytics or need help getting started, check out Google’s tutorials.

Accessibility

Duke sites and applications must accommodate a baseline level of accessibility to ensure our content reaches as many people as possible.  Duke aims to meet the WCAG 2.0 AA standard. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are driven by the larger international standards organization for the internet, the W3C. These standards, published in 2008, are based on 4 key principles: Perceivable, Operable, Understandable and Robust. Within these standards are 3 levels on conformance. A, AA, AAA.

It is important to note that web accessibility is accommodated through both the back-end development of a website AND the content that website houses. PDF’s are a big culprit of accessibility violations and it is critical that our communications professional know and understand the pitfalls of the web accessibility from all angles. Duke also has dedicated resources for educating and addressing web accessibility. Please visit the Duke Web Accessibility site for more information.

Service Level Agreements

Any work being done through a contract organization – internal or external – requires a minimum service-level agreement of 10 hours per year. Due to the changing nature of the web and the need for version and security upgrades on our preferred platforms, site owners need to identify some portion of their budget and calendar for updates and patching. Without this, sites are subject to vulnerability and attacks. Should a security breach occur, the security office may remove the affected site until it can be confirmed as no longer a risk. IT organizations such as OIT and DHTS cannot be held responsible for sites and actions that they did not create nor participate in.

Security

Duke websites present a very viable risk to the university and can provide an avenue of attack against other Duke systems. There is a direct relationship between website compromises and unpatched web environments and associated servers. In an effort to improve the security of all Duke’s websites, the IT Security Office (ITSO), Office of Information Technology (OIT) and University Communications have developed guidance and options for those managing websites at Duke.

Website Best Practices

A little goes a long way. Though there are a lot of industry standards with regards to mark up, responsive design, SEO, etc, here are general considerations to keep in mind when taking on a new project: (From Bean Creative)

  1. Go responsive — all design is responsive design. Your content needs to be accessible whether the user is on a mobile device with a 5″ screen or a desktop computer with a 30″ screen.
  2. Offer mobile-first design, with progressive enhancement for larger screens
  3. Optimize accessibility to create a user experience that is fully accessible to all viewers — everything from supporting people with disabilities to serving up clear images for devices that support 3x+
  4. Emphasize UX with good typography, leveraging the increasing number of web-specific typefaces and typekits, like Google Web Fonts, Adobe Typekit, etc.
  5. Focus on long-form content as opposed to click-thru content
  6. Provide CLEAR, real time feedback during form interactions. Don’t force users to guess the formatting needed, and consider small additions like auto tabbing between fields and formatting as you type to be super user-centric

Favicons and App Icons

The Garamond “D” makes is a great option to use as the favicon for a website or the home screen icon for your app. Download the full favicon pack or use the icons hosted below.

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